Minggu, 02 Januari 2011

Mount Bromo, East Java, Indonesia

Mount Bromo

Mt. Bromo (large crater, foreground) at sunrise
Elevation 2,329 m (7,641 ft) [1]
Listing Spesial Ribu
Mount Bromo is located in Indonesia
Mount Bromo
Java, Indonesia
Coordinates 7°56′30″S 112°57′00″E / 7.94167°S 112.95°E / -7.94167; 112.95Coordinates: 7°56′30″S 112°57′00″E / 7.94167°S 112.95°E / -7.94167; 112.95[1]
Type Stratovolcano (active)
Last eruption Jan. 2011 (ongoing)
For the main article that includes the Sand Sea and the Mount Semeru area, see Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park.
Mount Bromo (Indonesian: Gunung Bromo), is an active volcano and part of the Tengger massif, in East Java, Indonesia. At 2,329 metres (7,641 ft) it is not the highest peak of the massif, but is the most well known. The massif area is one of the most visited tourist attractions in East Java, Indonesia. The volcano belongs to the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. The name of Bromo derived from Javanese pronunciation of Brahma, the Hindu creator god.
Mount Bromo sits in the middle of a vast plain called the "Sea of Sand" (Javanese: Segara Wedi or Indonesian: Lautan Pasir), a protected nature reserve since 1919. The typical way to visit Mount Bromo is from the nearby mountain village of Cemoro Lawang. From there it is possible to walk to the volcano in about 45 minutes, but it is also possible to take an organised jeep tour, which includes a stop at the viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan (2,770 meters) (Indonesian: Gunung Penanjakan). The best views from Mount Bromo to the Sand Sea below and the surrounding volcanoes are at sunrise. The viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan can also be reached on foot in about two hours. From inside the caldera, sulfur is collected by workers.



On the fourteenth day of the Hindu festival of Yadnya Kasada, the Tenggerese people of Probolinggo, East Java, travel up the mountain in order to make offerings of fruit, rice, vegetables, flowers and sacrifices of livestock to the mountain gods by throwing them into the caldera of the volcano. The origin of the ritual lies in the 15th century legend where a princess named Roro Anteng started the principality of Tengger with her husband, Joko Seger. The couple were childless and therefore beseeched the assistance of the mountain gods. The gods granted them 24 children but stipulated that the 25th child, named Kesuma, must be thrown into the volcano as human sacrifice. The gods' request was implemented. The tradition of throwing sacrifices into the volcano to appease these ancient deities continues today and called Yadnya Kasada ceremony. Though fraught with danger, some locals risk climbing down into the crater in an attempt to recollect the sacrificed goods that believed could bring them good luck.
On the Segara Wedi sand plain sits a Hindu temple called Pura Luhur Poten. The temple holds a significant importance to the Tenggerese scatter across the mountainous villages such as Ngadisari, Wonokitri, Ngadas, Argosari, Ranu Prani, Ledok Ombo and Wonokerso. The temple organized annual Yadnya Kasada ceremony which lasts for about one month. On the 14th day, the Tenggerese will congregate at Pura Luhur Poten to ask for blessings from Ida Sang Hyang Widi Wasa and God of Mahameru (Mount Semeru). Then the mass will proceed along the crater edges of Mt Bromo where offerings will be thrown into the crater. The major difference between this temple with the Balinese ones are the type of stones and building materials. Pura Luhur Poten uses natural black stones from volcanoes nearby, while Balinese temples mostly made from red bricks. Inside this pura, there are several buildings and enclosures aligned in Mandala zone composition.[2]


On Tuesday, 23 November 2010, 16.30 Western Indonesian Times, the Indonesian Center of Vulcanology and Geology Disaster Mitigation had risen the activity status of Mount Bromo to "alert" because of the increasing activity of tremors and shallow earthquakes in the mountain. [3] The potential volcano eruption might take place soon. As precautions the refugees encampments were erected, the locals and tourists must cleared the area within radius three kilometres from the caldera. Currently the Bromo is off limits for visitors, as the volcano is the most famous tourism attraction in East Java. Last eruption of mount Bromo took place 2004 and killed two people.
Bromo started to erupt ash on Friday 26 November.[1]

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